Eman A M Zaky*, Howida El-Gebaly**, Saffia Effat***

Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

**Medical Department, Institute of Postgraduate Childhood studies, Ain Shams University, Egypt

***Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Objective: The current study was conducted to investigate the electroencephalographic changes in an Egyptian sample of DS patients and their relation to the cognitive abilities as well as the manifestations of psychiatric and or behavior disorders of those patients. Methods:  To fulfill the goal of the study it enrolled 44 Egyptian DS patients; 30 females and 14 males. Their ages ranged from 3 mo to 7 yrs with a mean age of 2.851.08 yrs. Clinical fits were reported in 31.82%of studied patients. Twenty healthy children of comparable age and sex were included as controls. Full history taking, thorough clinical examination, family pedigree construction, IQ assessment, diagnosis of behavior and or psychiatric disorders using Behavior Check List and DSM IV criteria, and   EEG recording were done for all included children. Results:  Disruptive behavior and mood disorders were reported in 22.73% and 50% of studied patients respectively compared to none of controls (p >0.05, <0.01 respectively). Inattentive type of ADHD was diagnosed in27.27% of studied DS cases compared to 5% of controls (p>0.05) while hyperactive type of ADHD was diagnosed in 40.91% of enrolled patients and none of controls (p<0.05). EEG changes were reported in 54.54% of studied patients (of them, 27.27% experienced clinical fits while 27.27% did not) compared to 20% of controls (p>0.05). There was neither statistically significant association between the existence of EEG changes nor their types and the degree of mental retardation of studied patients, their psychosocial dysfunction score or the concomitant type of behavior and or psychiatric disorder. On the other hand, focal epileptogenic discharge was significantly associated with lower IQ in the studied DS sample as a whole and in those without clinical fits (P>0.05). Psychosocial dysfunction scores were significantly higher in patients with or without clinical fits when compared with controls (p<0.01,P<0.001 respectively). Meanwhile, patients without clinical fits had significantly higher psychosocial dysfunction scores than those with clinical fits (p<0.05). IQ of enrolled patients was negatively correlated with the psychosocial dysfunction score but the correlation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: the results of the current study revealed a significant association between the EEG changes in the form of focal discharge and lower IQ s in Down syndrome children while they showed the lack of significant association between the presence or the type of EEG changes and the degree of mental retardation, the psychosocial dysfunction score, or the coexisted behavior and or psychiatric disorders.